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(March 17, 1912-August 24, 1987) Born Bayard Taylor Rustin, West Chester, Pennsylvania. Attended Wilberforce College (1932-33) and Cheyney State Teachers College (1934-36); expelled from both. Moved to New York City in 1937, taking classes at City College until 1941 and working as recruiter for Young Communist League. Recorded album Chain Gang (1940) as member of Josh White and His Carolinians; granted conscientious objector status. Left Young Communist League mid-1941; volunteered services to A. Philip Randolph's March on Washington Committee. Joined staff of Fellowship of Reconciliation as field secretary; traveled widely as lecturer on Gandhian nonviolence, pacifism, and race discrimination; also worked with James Farmer as first field secretary of Congress of Racial Equality (1942-44). Between 1944 and 1946 served 28 months in prison for resistance to terms of conscientious objector service; participated in hunger strike against prison dining hall segregation. With George Houser, organized 1947 Journey of Reconciliation; arrested in Durham, North Carolina, later serving three-week sentence on chain gang. (Published articles in New York Post in 1949 about chain gang experience.) In 1947 staged impromptu protest in St. Paul, Minnesota, hotel lobby when reservations were not honored. Traveled to India in 1948, meeting with Nehru. In 1953 arrested in Pasadena on publicly reported "morals charge," discovered having sex with men in car; sentenced to 60 days in county jail and forced to resign from Fellowship of Reconciliation. Appointed executive secretary of War Resisters League (1953). In 1956 served as adviser to Martin Luther King and Montgomery Improvement Association on Gandhian nonviolence. Organized New York fundraisers for Montgomery bus boycott. Founded Southern Christian Leadership Conference with Ella Baker and Stanley Levison; organized Prayer Pilgrimage to Washington (1957). Forced to resign from SCLC in 1960. Debated Malcolm X at Howard University. Headed organization of 1963 March on Washington; appeared on cover of Life with A. Philip Randolph. In 1965 published Commentary essay "From Protest to Politics"; left War Resisters League to head A. Philip Randolph Institute, funded by AFL-CIO. Edited 1969 essay collection Black Studies: Myths and Realities, opposed to campus Black Studies programs. Formed Black Americans to Support Israel Committee (1975) and chaired Committee on Conscience of U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council. In 1981 addressed Polish Solidarity movement on techniques of nonviolence. Died in New York City. Down the Line: The Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin published in 1971.